Client Resources

IFC Mobile Money Study 2011


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Data suggests that Brazil has a large unbanked population and therefore substantial opportunities m-money. However, our analysis shows that the Brazilian population is better served through a variety of formal and informal means and that m-money is just one of these mechanisms.


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Our analysis shows that there is massive un-met potential for m-money in Nigeria. However, there are several factors that are limiting the realisation of this potential. The report explains what these factors are and how they can be overcome. 

Sri Lanka

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Of the four countries in the Mobile Money Study, Sri Lanka has the greatest potential for m-money expansion. However, existing initiatives have not been able to take advantage of the m-money opportunities for several reasons that are explained in the report.


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The level of financial sophistication (in terms of financial infrastructure, POS and ATM penetration) means that the best solution for m-money in Thailand will be a combination of mobile phone use and debit, credit, and prepaid cards.

Summary Report

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Mobile Applications for Agriculture and Rural Development

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This report is the product of the staff and consultants of the World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.

Universal Service: The trends, opportunities and best practices
for universal access to broadband services

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Was prepared by Intelecon's Andrew Dymond for the 8th Annual OOCUR Conference held in Ocho Rios Jamaica in November 2010. Its related presentation can be viewed here

ICT Regulation Toolkit, Module 4: Universal Access & Service

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infoDev, in cooperation with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), has developed a web-based ICT Regulation Toolkit, an expansion of infoDev’s successful Telecommunications Regulation Handbook of 2000. Intelecon was contracted to compose Module 4: Universal Access & Service, which covers the basic concepts, market shortfalls and development gaps, roles of the government and the private sector, scope of support beyond the market, principles of cost-effective support, funding sources and mechanisms.

Output-Based Aid in Mongolia: Expanding telecommunications service to rural areas

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Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid, The World Bank (2007)

Special thanks to Tenzin Norbhu and Peter Silarszky, World Bank Task Team Leaders of the Mongolia OBA ICT project described here.

OBA Approaches: Note Number 2008 - Output-Based Aid in Mongolia: Expanding telecommunications service to rural areas

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A subsequent version of the report published in the February 2008 edition of OBA Approaches, a production of Global Partnership on Out-Based Aid (GPOBA).

Universal Access: How Mobile Can Bring Communications to All

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Was prepared by Intelecon for the GSMA and presented at their

Asia Congress in Singapore in October 2006.

Information and Communications Technologies

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Part III - Universal Access

European Bank for Reconstruction and Developement (2006)

Bringing a Universe of Access and Service to the Lowest-income Areas

Can be found in Nokia’s May 2006 New Horizons Newsletter (Q2 2006)

Expanded National Demand Study for Universal Access Project: Part 1 – Household Survey

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Expanded National Demand Study for Universal Access Project: Part 2 – Business and Institutions Survey

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These reports summarize the findings of the expanded national demand study carried out by Intelecon and eShekels for the Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) during February, March and April of 2005. A total of 5,104 primary interviews were conducted in 144 localities along potential new transmission routes in a total of 24 states, encompassing all six geopolitical zones.

Replicating Village Phone from Uganda and Bangladesh

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In 2005, IFC contracted Intelecon to review the replication of Village Phone in Uganda and provide recommendations on how IFC could replicate the model in other countries.

Universal Access and Universal Service Funds

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Can be found in Insights and Experience of International Best Practise, July 2005

Rural ICT Toolkit - Africa

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Financed by infoDev within the context of the African Connection project, and published in 2004, this toolkit concentrates on the "how to" of implementing rural ICT programs and projects in Africa. It can also be found online at:

Telecommunications Challenges in Developing Countries: Asymmetric Interconnection Charges in Developing Countries


This paper investigates the possibilities for implementing a geographically de-averaged charge regime indicative of the relative cost differences between urban and rural networks. (2004)

Uganda's Approach to Universal Access & Communications Development Funding: A Guide for Policy Makers and Regulators


For the Uganda Communications Commission & International Development Research Centre (2004). Also titled Funding and Implementing Universal Access: Innovation and Experience from Uganda

The Role of Sector Reform in Achieving Universal Access

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A chapter by Andrew Dymond and Sonja Oestmann for the ITU publication, "Trends in Telecommunication Reform 2003"

Mobile Operators: Their Contribution to Universal Service and Public Access

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Paper by Sonja Oestmann, January 2003

Rural Telecommunications Development in a Liberalising Environment: An Update on Universal Access Funds

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Paper by Andrew Dymond & Sonja Oestmann, July 2002

Rural Communications Funds: Success Factors world-wide and practical insights from Uganda

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Paper by Andrew Dymond & Sonja Oestmann for ACT 2002 Conference, Kenya, 6 August 2002

Telecommunications and Information Services for the Poor: Towards a strategy for Universal Access

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World Bank Report published in April 2002, written by Andrew Dymond, Juan Navas-Sabater, Niina Juntunen.